A GUIDE TO TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES
Includes Best Practices, Traditional Knowledge Centres, Traditional Knowledge Newsletters, Traditional Knowledge Websites, and Traditional Knowledge Literature. This material is excerpted from the Partnership Guidelines for ease of reading here.
The following are a few of the most important traditional knowledge web sites to be found on the Internet. When searching for information the term “Aboriginal” tends to be used by Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, “Native American” or “Indian” by the United States of America, and “Indigenous” by the rest of the world. This can be helpful in specifying your search.
BEST PRACTICES FOR PROJECT PLANNING
WITH INDIGENOUS TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
Best practices for project planning to include indigenous traditional knowledge have not been well established. By adhering to the practices suggested here, planners and managers can minimize the risk to both project and people. This list, however, is not a step-by-step outline for project planning or implementation. Regional and local variations are extremely important. Being open-minded, sensitive to other cultures, and able to accept another person’s completely different way of solving problems is essential. Remember, most project planners have already decided the project should move ahead, and are concerned with how that should be done. Whereas, most indigenous communities who are being asked to participate, will be assessing why the project should go ahead, not how.
- Use the simple definition: indigenous peoples are self-identifiable as a people, wholly or partially self-governed, and live within a larger nation.
- Recognize that indigenous knowledge is a way of life, an experience-based relationship with family, spirits, animals, plants, and the land, an understanding and wisdom gained through generations of observation and teaching that uses indirect signals from nature or culture to predict future events or impacts.
- Weave indigenous peoples and their traditional knowledge systems as full partners in the design of a project when indigenous people are directly or indirectly affected by the project.
- In acquiring indigenous traditional knowledge:
- Cause no harm.
- Define the roles and responsibilities of participants carefully and in line with culture and knowledge systems.
- Define the information to be collected; specify taboo information as outside the project limits. Establish the use, ownership, and the means to interpret or communicate information at the outset.
TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE CENTERS
|Indigenous Knowledge Centre||Mailing Address|
|ARCIK||African Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Nigeria) Prof. Adedotun Phillips, DirectorDr. Tunji Titilola, Research Coordinator Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, PMB 5 – UI Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria. Tel: +234-22-400500Fax: +234-22-416129 or +firstname.lastname@example.org|
|APIK||Association for the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge Dr. Amare Dejene, DirectorAddis Ababa UniversityP.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaTel/Fax: +email@example.com|
|BARCIK||Bangladesh Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Bangladesh) IARD, 5/13, Block E, Lalmatia, Dhaka – 1207, Bangladesh. firstname.lastname@example.org|
|BRARCIK||Brazilian Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Brazil) UNESP, Dept. Biologia, 14870.000 Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil.email@example.com|
|BURCIK||Burkina Faso Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Burkina Faso)(Centre Burkinabè de Recherche sur les Pratiques et Savoirs Paysans) Dr Basga E. Dialla H. (INNS), Director B.P. 5154, Ouagadougou 02, Burkina Faso. Tel: +226-360746 Fax: +226-315003|
|CARICKS||Centre for Advanced Research on Indigenous Knowledge Systems (India) P.O. Box 1, Swaraswathipuram, Mysore 570009, India|
|GHARCIK||Ghana Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Dr. M. Bonsu, Interim DirectorSchool of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Cape CoastTel: +233-42-2240-9/2480-9 Telex: +233-42-2552 UCC GH|
|CECIK||Centre for Cosmovisions and Indigenous Knowledge (Ghana) Dr. David Millar, Director c/o T.A.A.P., P.O. Box 42, Tamale, Northern Region, Ghana. firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +233-71-22000|
|CIKARD||Centre for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development (United States) Dr Norma Wolff, Interim Director 318 Curtiss hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 50011, USA email@example.com Tel: +1-515-294 7139 Fax: +1-515-294 6058|
|CIKFAB||Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Fourah Bay College (Sierra Leone) Dr Dominic T. Ashley, Director Department of Sociology, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Tel: +232-22-7387|
|CIKFIM||Centre for Indigenous Knowledge in Farm and Infrastructure Management (Nigeria) Centre for Food and Agricultural Strategy, University of Agriculture, Private mail Bag 2373, Makurdi, Nigeria|
|CIKIB||Centre for Indigenous Knowledge on Indian Bioresources (India)) c/o Institute of Ethnobiology, National Botanical Research Institute, P.O. Box 436, Lucknow 226001, India|
|CIKO||Cameroon Indigenous Knowledge Organisation (Cameroons): Prof. C.N. Ngwasiri, Director P.O. Box 170, Buea, South West Province, Cameroon firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +237-322181 Fax: +237-322181/430813|
|CIKFIM||Centre for Indigenous Knowledge in Farm and Infrastructure Management Dr. G.B. Ayoola, DirectorCentre for Food and Agricultural StrategyUniversity of AgriculturePrivate Mail Bag 2373Makurdi, NigeriaTel: +234-44-533204 Fax: +234-44-31020 (box 5)|
|CIKPREM||Centre for Indigenous Knowledge on Population Resource and Environmental Management (Nigeria) Prof. D.S. ObikezeDepartment of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria|
|CIRAN||Centre for International Research and Advisory Networks (Netherlands) Dr G.W. von Liebenstein, DirectorCIRAN/Nuffic P.O. Box 29777, 2502 LT The Hague, The Netherlands. email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +31-70-4260321 Fax: +31-70-4260329|
|CTK||Centre for Traditional Knowledge (Canada) 240 McLeod St, 3rd Floor east, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 6P4. email@example.com|
|ELLRIK||Elliniko Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Greece) Medical School, Department of Social Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1393, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. firstname.lastname@example.org|
|GERCIK||Georgia Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Georgia) Institute of Botany, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Kodjorl schosse #1, 380007 Tbilisi, Georgia. email@example.com|
|GHARCICK||Ghana Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Ghana) School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana|
|ICIK||Interinstitutional Consortium for Indigenous Knowledge (United States of America) Ladi Semali, Director The Pennsylvania State University, 254 Chambers building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +1-814-865-6565 Fax: +1-814-863-7602|
|INRIK||Indonesian Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Indonesia UPT Inrik-Unpad, Ruang K-3< JI, Dipati UKUR 35, Bandung 40132, West Java, Indonesia. email@example.com|
|INRESC||Indigenous Resource Study Centre (Ethiopia) Dr Tesema Ta’a, DirectorCollege of Social Sciences Adis Adaba University, P.O. Box 1176, Adis Adaba, Ethiopia. Tel/Fax: +251-1-550655|
|KENRIK||Kenya Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Kenya) Dr Rashid Aman, Director The National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya. firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +254-2-744 233 Fax: +254-2-741424|
|LEAD||Leiden Ethnosystems and Development Programme (Netherlands) Dr. L. Jan Slikkerveer. Director Institute of Cultural and Social StudiesUniversity of Leiden, P.O. Box 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, The Netherlands. tel.31-71-273469: fax 31-71-273619|
|MARCIK||Madagascar Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Madagascar) Ms Juliette Ratsimandrava Centre d’Information et de Documentation et Technique, B.P. 6224, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar. tel/fax: +261-2-32123/20422|
|MARECIK||Maasai Resource Centre for indigenous Knowledge (Tanzania) Dr Nathan Ole Lengisugi Simanjiro Animal Husbandry Vocational Training Centre, P.O. Box 3084, Arusha, Tanzania|
|NIRCIK||Nigerian Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Nigeria) Dr J.O. Olukosi, Coordinator Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria. Tel: +234-69-50571-4 Ext. 4322, Fax: +234-69-50891/50563Telex: 75248 NITEZ NG|
|PHIRCSDIK||Philippine Resource Centre for Sustainable Development and Indigenous Knowledge (Philippines) Philippine Council for Research, Forestry and Natural Resources Development, Paseo de Valmayor, P.O. Box 425, Los Banos, Laguna, The Philippines. email@example.com|
|REPPIKA||Regional Program for the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge in Asia (Philippines) International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite 4118, The Philippines. firstname.lastname@example.org|
|RIDSCA||Mexican Research, Teaching and Service Network on Indigenous Knowledge (Mexico) Government centre. Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Puebla, Apartado Postal l-12, C.P. 72130, Col. La Libertad, Puebla, Pue. Mexico. email@example.com|
|RURCIK||Russian Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Russia) EkoNiva, P.O. Box 1, Nemchinovka -1, Moscow Region, Russia 143013|
|SARCIK||South African Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (South Africa) Alwijn Dippenaar, Executive Director The Institute for Indigenous Theory and Practice, P.O. Box 2355, Somerset West, 7129 South Africa. firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +27-21-8543299|
|SLARCIK||Sri Lanka Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Sri Lanka) University of Sri Jayewardenapura, Forestry Building, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka. email@example.com|
|UNCST||Uganda National Council for Science and Technology Director Dr. Zerubabel M. NyiiraPlot 10 Kampala RoadUganda House, 11th Floor, P.O.B. 6884, Kampala, UgandaTel: +256 – 41 – 25 0499, Fax: +256 – 41 – 23 4579Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgWeb: http://www.uncst.go.ug|
|URURCIK||Uruguayan Resource Center for Indigenous Knowledge (Uruguay) CEDESUR P.O. Box 20.201, Sayago, Montevideo, 12,900, Uruguay. email@example.com|
|VERSIK||enezuelan Resource Secretariat for Indigenous Knowledge (Venezuela) Centre for Tropical Alternative Agriculture and Sustainable Development, University of the Andes, Núcleo “Rafael Range”, Apartado Postal #22, Trujillo, Venezuela. firstname.lastname@example.org|
|YORCIK||Yoruba Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Nigeria) Centre for Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. email@example.com|
|ZIRCIK||Zimbabwe Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Wahington Chipfunde, Director and Wilbert Sadomba78 Kaguvi Street, New Book House, P.O.B. 4209, Harare, ZimbabweTelephone: 263 (0)4 781 770 / 1, Fax: 263 (0)4 751 202E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org|
TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE NEWSLETTERS
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION STRATEGY UPDATE. Biological Resources and Institutions Program, World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006 USA.
CIKARD News. Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development, 318 Curtiss Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 USA.
GATE – German Appropriate Technology Exchange, GTZ, Eschborn
HONEY BEE: Newsletter for Documentation and Experimentation of Local Innovations Developed by Farmers, Pastoralists,
ARTISANS, AND HORTICULTURALISTS. Centre for Management in Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad-380015, India.
IFPP Newsletter. Indigenous Food Plants Programme, P.O. Box 48108, Nairobi, Kenya.
ILEIA Newsletter. Information Centre for Low-External-Input Agriculture, P.O. Box 64, 3830 AB Leusden, The Netherlands.
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND DEVELOPMENT MONITOR: Newsletter of the Global Network of Indigenous Knowledge Resource Centers. CIRAN, P.O. Box 90734, 2509 LS The Hague, The Netherlands.
INTERNATIONAL TRADITIONAL MEDICINE NEWSLETTER. Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois, P.O. Box 6998, Chicago, Illinois 60680-6998 USA.
LA VOIX DU PAYSAN, Cameroun
LE GRENIER, Service Inter Africaine de Technologiees Appropriees, Burkina Faso
SEEDLING. Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN), Apartado 23398, E-08080 Barcelona, Spain.
IWGIA Newsletter. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Fiolstraede 10, DK-1171 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
IK NOTES, World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Washington D.C. 20433 Monthly Newsletter in English, French, Portuguese and soon on local languages
TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE LITERATURE
The selections included in this list are intended to assist the reader in broadening information on topics in the handbook and also to suggest where case studies can be found. There are very few titles that directly describe how to include traditional knowledge in development projects, but this list includes most that are available. Finally, because indigenous resource rights, indigenous intellectual property rights and land ownership are complicated topics, some of the references refer to these issues.
Abel, K. and J. Friesen. 1991. Aboriginal Resource Use in Canada; Historical and Legal Aspects. 343 pp. Umiversity of Manitoba Press, Winnipeg.
Adamowicz, W., T. Beckley, and W. Phillips 1998. “In Search of Forest Resource Values on Indigenous peoples: Are Nonmarket Valuation Techniques Applicable?” Society and Natural Resources 11(1):51-66.
Agrawal, Arun. 1995. “Neither Having One’s Cake, Nor Eating It; Intellectual Property Rights and ‘Indigenous’ Knowledge.” Common Property Resource Digest 36:1-5.
Akimichi, Tomoya. 1995. “Indigenous Resource Management and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia.” Anthropological Science 103(4):321-327.
Alcorn, Janis B. 1990. “Indigenous Agroforestry Systems in the Latin American Tropics.” In Agroecology and Small Farm Development. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Altieri, M.A. and L.C. Merrick (1987a) ‘In situ conservation of crop genetic resources through maintenance of traditional farming systems’, Economic Botany 41(1):86-96. Altieri, M.A.(1987) ‘The significance of diversity in the maintenance of the sustainability of traditional agroecosystems’, ILEIA Newsletter 3(2):3-7.
Altieri, M.A., M.K. Anderson and L.C. Merrick (1987b) ‘Peasant agriculture and the conservation of crop and wild plant resources’, Conservation Biology 1(1):49-58.
Anderson, R. B. 1997. “Corporate/Indigenous Partnerships in Economic Development: The First Nations in Canada.” World Development 25(9):1483-.
Ashby, J.A., T. Gracia, M. del P. Guerrero, C.A. Quirós, I.J. Roa and J.A. Beltrán (1995) ‘Organizing experimenting farmers for participation in agricultural research and technology development’. Paper presented at the Workshop entitled ‘Traditional and modern systems of natural resource management in Latin America’. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
Atran, S. (1990) Cognitive foundations of natural history: towards an anthropology of science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Atteh, Oluwayomi David. 1992. Indigenous Local Knowledge as Key to Local Level Development: Possibilities, Constraints and Planning Issues in the Context of Africa. Ames, IO: Technology and Social Change Programme, Iowa State University in collaboration with Leiden Ethnosystems and development Programme (LEAD), Leiden University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, no. 20).
Babu, S. C. and B. Rajasekaran 1991. “Agroforestry, Attitudes Towards Risk and Nutritional Availability: A Case Study of South Indian Farming Systems.” Agroforestry Systems 15 (1): 1-16.
Babu, S. C., D. M. Warren and B. Rajasekaran. 1994. “Expert Systems for Utilizing Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Farming Systems Research: The Case of Crop Varietal Selection.” In D. M. Warren, L. J. Slikkerveer, and D. Brokensha (eds.) The Cultural Dimension of Development: Indigenous Knowledge Systems, London : Intermediate Technology Publications (in press).
Badri, B. and A. Badri (1994) ‘Women and biodiversity’, Development, Journal of SID 1:67-71.
Barreiro, Jose. 1991. “Indigenous peoples Are the ‘Miner’s Canary’ of the Human Family.” In Learning to Listen to the Land. W. B. Willers, ed. Washington, DC: Island.
Bellon, M.R. and S.B. Brush (1994) ‘Keepers of maize in Chiapas, Mexico’, Economic Botany 48(2):196-209.
Benzing, A. (1989) ‘Andean Potato peasants are ‘seed bankers’, ILEIA Newsletter 5(4):12-13.
Berkes, F. and C. Folke (1994) ‘Linking social and ecological systems for resilience and sustainability’. Paper presented at the Workshop on property rights and the performance of natural resource systems. Stockholm: The Badger International Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Berkes, Fikret, Peter George, and Richard J. Preston 1991. “Co-Management: The Evolution in Theory and Practice of the Joint Administration of Living Resources.” Alternatives 18(2):12-18.
Berkes, Fikret. 1995. “Indigenous Knowledge and Resource Management Systems: A Native Canadian Case Study from James Bay.” In Property Rights in a Social and Ecological Context; Case Studies and Design Applications. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe, eds. Washington, DC: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank.
Berlin, B. (1992) Ethnobiological classification: principles of categorization of plants and animals in traditional societies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Brouwer, Jan. 1998. “On Indigenous Knowledge and Development.” Current Anthropology 39(3):351-. Brush, Stephen, and Doreen Stabinsky 1995. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous peoples and Intellectual Property Rights. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Bunyard, P.(1994) ‘Bringing back the balance: Alternative economics for the Colombian Amazon’, ILEIA Newsletter 10(2):10-11.
Cashman, K. “Indigenous Knowledge and International Agricultural Research; Where Do We Go From Here?” pp. 10-20, In D. M. Warren, L. J. Slikkerveer, and S. O. Titilola (eds.), Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. Studies in Technology and Social Change No. 11. Ames, Iowa: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University.
Caufield, Catherine. 1998. “Selling A Piece of Your Mother.” Whole Earth:58-73.
Chambers, R., A. Pacey, and L.A. Thrupp (eds) (1989) Farmer First: Farmer innovation and agricultural research. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.
Chapin, M.(1988) ‘The seduction of models: Chinampa agriculture in Mexico’, Grassroots Development 12(1):8-17.
Chatty, Dawn. 1966. Mobile Pastoralists: Development Planning and Social Change in Oman. New York: Columbia University Press.
Clarke, Jeanette, ed. 1994. Building on Indigenous Natural Resource Management: Forestry Practices in Zimbabwe’s Communal Lands. Harare, Zimbabwe: Earthware Publishing Services.
Davies, S. and Ebbe, K. (1995) Traditional knowledge and sustainable development; proceedings of a conference, held at the World Bank in September 1993, World Bank, Environmentally sustainable development proceedings Series No.4 Washington D.C.
Dei, George J. S. 1993. “Indigenous African Knowledge Systems: Local Traditions of Sustainable Forestry.” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 14(1):28-41.
DeWalt, Billie R. 1994. “Using Indigenous Knowledge to Improve Agriculture and Natural Resource Management.” Human Organization 53(2)
Donighi, P. 1994. Indigenous or Aboriginal Rights to Property: A Papua New Guinea Perspective. Utrecht, Netherlands: International Books.
Drahos, Peter. 1997. “Indigenous Knowledge and the Duties of Intellectual Property Owners.” Intellectual Property Journal 11(2):179-.
Drolet, Charles A., Austin Reed, Mimi Breton, and Fikret Berkes 1986. “Sharing Wildlife Management Responsibilities with Native Groups: Case Histories in Northern Quebec.” Transactions of the 52nd North American Wildlife and National Resources Conference 52:389-398.
Easton, P. (editor, unpublished, 1998) Decentralization, self Governance and local capacity building in the Sahel: Results of the PADLOS-Education Study, Club du Sahel, OECD and CILSS
Ellen, R. and Harris, H (1996). Concepts of indigenous environmental knowledge in scientific and development studies literature – A critical assessment; draft paper East-West Environmental Linkages Network Workshop 3, Canterbury
Emery, 1997. Guidelines for Environmental Assessments and Traditional Knowledge. 67 pp. CIDA, Ottawa, Canada.
Erickson, C.L. (1994) ‘Raised fields as a sustainable Agricultural System from Amazonia’. Paper presented in the Symposium entitled ‘Recovery of indigenous technology and resources in Bolivia’. Atlanta: XVIII International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association.
FAO (1993a) ‘From forum to the field: NGO perspectives and concern’, Deep, Development Education Exchange Papers 11-13.
FAO (1993b) ‘Ciencia Indígena y biodiversidad’, pp. 4-6 in La diversidad de la naturaleza: Un patrimonio valisio.
Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria. 1993. “The Role of Ecological Perception in Indigenous Resource Management: A Case Study from the Mongolian Forest-Steppe.” Nomadic Peoples 33:31-46.
Flavier, J.M. et al. (1995) ‘The regional program for the promotion of indigenous knowledge in Asia’, pp. 479-487 in Warren, D.M., L.J. Slikkerveer and D. Brokensha (eds) The cultural dimension of development: Indigenous knowledge systems. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.
Garming, Maximo B. 1984. “The Use of Indigenous Institutions as an Approach to Rural Development; A Case of an Upland Community.” Philippine Journal of Public Administration 28(3):227-250.
Greaves, Tom. 1994. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous peoples: A Sourcebook. Oklahoma City, OK: Society for Applied Anthropology.
Grenier, L. (1998) Working with Indigenous Knowledge – A Guide for Researchers, IDRC, Ottawa
Gupta, Anil K. 1994 “The Honey Bee has Stung!” Forests, Trees and People Newsletter(18):8-16.
Gupta, Anil K. 1996. “The Honey Bee Network: Voices from Grassroots Innovators.” Cultural Survival Quarterly 20(1):57-60.
Hambly, H.; Onweng, A. T., ed. (1996) Experience and perspectives from eastern and southern Africa IDRC Ottawa
Haverkort, B., W. Hiemstra, C. Reijntjes and S. Essers (1988) ‘Strengthening farmers’ capacity for technology development’, ILEIA Newsletter 4(3): 3-7.
Hecht, S.B. and D.A. Posey (1989) ‘Preliminary results of soil management techniques of the Kayap’ Indians’, Advances in Economic Botany (7): 174-188.
Hobart, M. (ed.) (1993) Introduction: the growth of ignorance? An anthropological critique of development London: Routledge, pp. 1-30.
Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T. (eds.) (1983) The invention of tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hunn, E. (1993) What is traditional ecological knowledge? In Traditional ecological knowledge: wisdom for sustainable development. N. Williams and G. Baines (eds.) Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, ANU, pp. 13-15
Hyvarinen, Heikki J. 1993. “The Legal Status of Rights to Resources in Finnish Lapland.” In Common Property Regimes: Law and Management of Non-Private Resources; Proceedings of the Conference, Vol. II. E. Berge and D. Ott, eds. Ås, Norway: The Agricultural University of Norway. (Man and the Biosphere).
Inglis, J. ed., 1993. Traditional Ecological Knowledge – Concepts and Cases. Pp: 142,International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada
Iyer, K. G. 1996. “Land Alienation, Deforestation and Predicament of the Tribals in Bihar and Tripura: A Comparative Focus.” In Sustainable Development: Ecological and Sociocultural Dimensions. K. G. Iyer, ed. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.
Jentoft, Svein, and Knut H. Mikalsen 1994. “Regulating Fjord Fisheries: Folk Management or Interest Group Politics?” In Folk Management in the World’s Fisheries: Lessons for Modern Fisheries Management. C. L. Dyer and J. R. McGoodwin, eds. Niwot, CO: The University Press of Colorado.
Johannes, Robert E., ed. 1989. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. Gland, Switzerland: World Conservation Union (IUCN).
Johnson, A.W. (1972) ‘Individuality and experimentation in traditional agriculture’, Human Ecology 1(2):149-159.
Johnson, Martha, ed. 1992. Lore, Capturing Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Pp 190. Dene Cultural Institute (Hay River) and International Development Research Centre (Ottawa).
Kemf, Elizabeth, ed. 1993. The Law of the Mother: Protecting Indigenous peoples in Protected Areas. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books in association with the World Wildlife Fund and the International Union for the conservation of Nature.
Kilahama, F. B. 1994. “Indigenous Ecological Knowledge: A Vital Tool for Rural Extension Strategies; A Case Study From Shinyanga Region, Tanzania.” Forests, Trees and People Newsletter 24:30-35.
King, S. R. 1992. “Pharmaceutical Discovery, Ethnobotany, Tropical Forests, and Reciprocity: Integrating Indigenous Knowledge, Conservation, and Sustainable Development.” In Sustainable Harvest and Marketing of Rain Forest Products. M. J. Plotkin and L. Famolare, eds. Washington, DC: Island Press.
King, S. R., T. J. Carlson, and K. Moran 1996. “Biological Diversity, Indigenous Knowledge, Drug Discovery and Intellectual Property Rights: Creating Reciprocity and Maintaining Relationships.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 51(1/3):45-57.
Korovkin, Tanya. 1997. “Taming Capitalism: The Evolution of the Indigenous Peasant Economy in Northern Ecuador.” Latin American Research Review 32(3):89-.
Kothari, Brij. 1997. “Rights to the Benefits of Research: Compensating Indigenous peoples for Their Intellectual Contribution.” Human Organization 56(2):127-137.
Larson, J. (1998) “Perspectives on indigenous knowledge systems in Southern Africa”, Washington D.C. World Bank Discussion paper No.3
Lawas, C. M., Luning H. A. (1996) Farmers’ Knowledge and GIS, Indigenous Knowledge Monitor Vol. 4, (1) April 1996
Lehm, Zulema, and John Kudrenecky 1995. “Reflections on a Proposal for Forest Management and Harvest in the Multi-Ethnic Indigenous Territory of Beni, Bolivia.” In Case Studies of Community-Based Forestry Enterprises in the Americas. Institute for Environmental Studies (IIES), ed. Madison, WI: IIES, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin.
Lickers, H. et. al., 1995. Building Respect – Native People and Environmental Assessment. pp. 18. Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy
Linquist, B. J., and David Adolph 1996. “The Drum Speaks–Are We Listening? Experiences in Development with a Traditional Gabra Institutions–The Yaa Galbo.” In Indigenous Organizations and Development. P. Blunt and D. M. Warren, eds. London: Intermediate Technology Publications. (IT Series in Indigenous Knowledge and Development).
MacDonald, Theodore. 1992. “From Reaction to Planning: An Indigenous Response to Tropical Deforestation and Cattle Ranching.” In Development or Destruction: The Conversion of Tropical Forest to Pasture in Latin America. T. E. Downing et al., eds. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Macdonald, Theodore. 1996. “The Routinization of Protest: Institutionalizing Local Participation.” Cultural Survival Quarterly 20(3):57-60.
Mathias, E. (1995) Framework for enhancing the use of indigenous knowledge, Indigenous Knowledge Monitor Vol. 3, (2) August 1995
Mathias-Mundy, E. (1989) ‘Of Herbs and healers’, ILEIA Newsletter 4(3):20-22.
Mathias-Mundy, E. and C. McCorkle. 1989. Ethnoveterinary Medicine: An Annotated Bibliography. Bibliographies in Technology and Social Change No. 6. Ames, Iowa: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University.
Mathias-Mundy, E., O. Muchena., G. McKiernan, and P. Mundy. 1992. Indigenous Technical Knowledge of Private Tree Management: A Bibliographic Report. Bibliographies in Technology and Social Change No. 7. Ames, Iowa: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University.
Matowanyika, Joseph Z. Z., Vielka Garibaldi, and Elizabeth Musimwa, eds. 1995. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa. Harare, Zimbabwe: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. (Indigenous Knowledge Systems Series, no. 1).
McCall, Michael K. 1994. Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Farming Systems of Eastern Africa: A Bibliography. Ames, IA: Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development. (Bibliographies in Technology and Social Change Series, no. 9).
McConnel, P., ed (1995) Making a Difference: Measuring the Impact of Information on Development Workshop Proceedings, Ottawa, Canada, 1995; IDRC, in: Making a Difference: Measuring the Impact of Information on Development, edited by McConnel, P.
McCorkle, C. (1994) Farmer innovation in Niger. Studies in Technology and Social Change Series No 21. Ames: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University.
McMahon, G. ed. 1998. Mining and the Community: Results of the Quito Conference. Pp 164. World Bank, NY, NY.
Menon, Meena. 1998. “Vadhavan: Development versus People.” In The Hindu Survey of the Environment 1998. S. N. Ravi, ed. Chennai, India: S. Rangarajan.
Michaels, Mark A. 1998. “Indigenous Ethics and Alien Laws: Native Traditions and the United States Legal System.” Fordham Law Review 66(4):1565-.
Migot-Adholla, Shem et al. 1991. “Indigenous Land Rights Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Constraint on Productivity?” World Bank Economic Review 5(1):155-175.
Mishra, Smitra. 1994. “Women’s Indigenous Knowledge of Forest Management in Orissa.” Indigenous Knowledge & Development Monitor 2(3):3-5.
Momberg, Frank. 1993. Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Potentials for Social Forestry Development: Resource Management for Land-Dayaks in West Kalimantan. Berlin: Technische Universitaet Berlin. (Berlinger Beitraege zur Umwelt und Entwicklung, vol. 3).
Mooney, Patrick R. 1993. “Exploiting Local Knowledge: International Policy Implications.” In Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research. W. de Boef et al., eds. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.
Moore, Christopher, and Mas Achmad Santosa 1995. “Developing Appropriate Environmental Conflict Management Procedures in Indonesia: Integrating Traditional and New Approaches.” Cultural Survival Quarterly 19(3):23-29.
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